▼ primary Sources ▼Jose Antonio Primo después Rivera

José Antonio Primo después Rivera was born into un wealthy family in Madrid, Spain, in 1903. Antonio was the estaban of michael Primo de Rivera, ns military dictator of Spain between mil novecientos veintitrés and 1930.

Tu lees esto: Jose antonio primo de rivera falange

Primo del Rivera became ns lawyer and became involved in politics once he do speeches defending ns policies that his father. He also edited los right-wing journal, ns Fascio. Delaware it to be shut debajo by los Republican government he created for the periodical ABC.

In October 1933 Primo después Rivera established los Falange Española (Spanish Falange). In its declaration published later that year los Falange condemned socialism, Marxism, republicanism and capitalism and proposed the Spain must become un Fascist state raza to ns one created by benedicto Mussolini in Italy.

Primo después Rivera won ns seat in the corte as ns delegate for Jerez de la Frontera. He additionally founded two newspapers, Fe (1934) y Arriba (1935).

In the normal election that took location in February 1936, los Falange won just 0.7 término cent of ns vote. After the success of the popular Front ns Falange Española thrived rapidly y by July had a membership that 40,000.


Spanish cortés War Encyclopedia

Primo del Rivera completely supported ns military rebellion in July 1936 against the republican federal government and delaware the outbreak of ns Spanish cortés War the Falange became the dominant political movement of los Nationalists.

José Antonio Primo de Rivera was captured by the republicans on 6th July 1936. He was organized in captivity until being executed in Alicante top top 20th November 1936.

By john Simkin (john © September mil novecientos noventa y siete (updated January 2020).
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Primary Sources

(1) joe Antonio, Falange manifesto (November, 1934)

Nation, Unity, Empire

1. We think in los supreme reality of Spain. The urgent collective task of every Spaniards is to strengthen, elevate, y aggrandize the nation. All individual, group, or course interests have to be subordinated without inquiry to the accomplishment that this task.

2. Spain is an indivisible destiny in espectro terms. Any kind of conspiracy versus this indivisible entirety is repulsive. All separatism is a crime we shall not forgive. The prevailing Constitution, insofar together it urges disintegration, offends against ns indivisible nature of Spain"s destiny. We thus demand its immediate repeal.

3. We are committed to Empire. We declare the Spain"s historical fulfillment is ns Empire. We demand for Spain uno prominent place in Europe. We shall not tolerate internacional isolation or international interference. Regarding los countries the Spanish America, our aim is los unification that culture, economic interests, and power. Spain claims that its duty as los spiritual axis of the Spanish-speaking mundo entitles the to un position of preeminence in mundo affairs.

4. Our equipped forces -papposo on land, in ~ sea, y in the atmósfera - have to be saturated strong y efficient come ensure at all times for Spain totalmente independence y a mundo status that befits the nation. We shall give trasero to los land, sea, and air forces all the public dignity lock merit, and we shall watch to it that a similar martial outlook pervades ns whole of Spanish life.

5. Spain will look again come the sea routes for her glory y her wealth. Spain will certainly aim come become a great seafaring power, for veces of danger y for los sake that trade. We demand for ns Fatherland same status amongst navies y on the aire routes.

State, Individual, Freedom

6. Ours will be ns totalitarian state in the servicio of ns Fatherland"s integrity. All Spaniards will jugar a component therein through their membership in families, municipalities y trade unions. Alguna one shall jugar a component therein through uno political party. The system of politics parties will be resolutely abolished, together with all that is corollaries: inorganic suffrage, depiction by conflict factions, and the corte as we understand it.

7. Human dignity, los integrity of the individual, y individual freedom are eternal and intangible values. But the only method to be really complimentary is to be part of un strong and free nation. Alguna one will be allowed to use his liberty against ns unity, the strength, y the flexibility of los Fatherland. Uno rigorous technique will prevent any kind of attempt to poison or split los Spanish people, or come incite them to go against los destiny of los Fatherland.

8. Los National-Syndicalist estado will permit any type of private initiative the is compatible with ns collective attention and, indeed, will protect and stimulate those that are beneficial.

Economy, Work, class Struggle

9. In los economic sphere, us think of Spain together one vast syndicate of every those involved in production. In order come serve nacional economic integrity us shall to organize Spanish society along corporative currently by creating un system of vertical unions that will certainly represent the various branches that production.

10. We reject ns capitalist system, i beg your pardon disregards ns needs of ns people, dehumanizes private property, y transforms ns workers into shapeless masses that are prone come misery and despair. Our spiritual and national awareness likewise repudiates Marxism. We shall channel ns drive of los working classes, that room nowadays led astray through Marxism, by demanding their direct participation in los formidable job of the país State.

11. The National-Syndicalist estado will no stand cruelly aloof representar economic conflicts between men, nor will it look at on impassively as the strongest class subjugates ns weakest. Our routine will make class struggle completely impossible, due to the fact that all those cooperating in production will constitute one organic totality therein. We deplore and shall prevent at all costs ns abuses the partial vested interests, as well as anarchy in los workforce.

12. Ns primary objective of riches is come improve ns standard of life of all ns people - and this will certainly be ns declared policy of our State. The is intolerable that an excellent masses of people live in poverty while uno few enjoy every luxury.

13. The estado will recognize private property as un legitimate means of attaining individual, family, y social ends, y will safeguard it against being abused by high finance, speculators, y moneylenders.

14. Us shall defend los move toward nationalization that banking and the takeover of the major public services by corporations.

15. Every Spanish citizens have ns right to work. The public organizations will administer adequate maintain for those who are involuntarily el fin of work. While we are moving toward the new overall structure, we shall retain and increase all ns advantages ns workers derive desde current social legislation.

Ver más: Programacion De Telecinco De Hoy, Programación Tv

16. Every Spaniard that is not an invalid is duty bound to work. The National-Syndicalist estado will no have ns slightest regard because that those who do not fulfill any duty but who suppose to live prefer guests at the expense of various other people"s efforts.


17. As un matter of urgency we need to raise los standard of living in the rural areas, on which Spain will always depend for her food. For this reason, we commit ourself to the strict implementation of an economic y social revolutionary of agriculture.

18. As part of our economic reform, us shall strengthen agricultural production by way of los following measures:

By guaranteeing all farmers an enough minimum price for their produce.

By see to the that lot of what is nowadays absorbed by the cities in payment for your intellectual y commercial services is returned to los land, in order come endow campo areas sufficiently.

By organizing a verdadero system of national agricultural credit that will lend farmers money at pequeño rates of interest, in order to guaranteeing their possessions y harvests y freeing them representar usury and patronage.

By spreading education and learning pertaining to problem of agriculture y animal husbandry.

By rationalizing manufacturing according to the suitability of los land y the outlets obtainable for that products.

By promoting un protectionist tariff policy covering agriculture y the increasing of cattle.

By speeding up ns construction of a hydraulic network.

By rationalizing landholdings in stimulate to get rid of both substantial estates that space not fully exploited and smallholdings that room uneconomic by reason of their low yield.

19. Us shall achieve a social organization of farming by way of the following measures:

By redistributing when again all ns arable land come promote family holdings and by offering farmers every encouragement to join the union.

By rescuing desde their present poverty ns masses of human being who are exhausting us scratching ~ above barren soil, y by moving them to new propietario of arable land.

20. We shall launch a tireless project of reforestation y stockbreeding, imposing severe sanctions on whomever obstructs it, and even resorting temporary to los enforced mobilization of all Spanish youth for the historic task of rebuilding our country"s wealth.

21. The state will have powers come confiscate there is no compensation any kind of land, los ownership of which has been obtained or took pleasure in illicitly.

22. A priority of los National-Syndicalist state will it is in to regreso to villages their communal property.

National, Education, Religion

23. It is a básico mission of the estado to impose a rigorous self-control on education and learning that will producido a strong, united, national spirit and fill los souls of future generations con joy y pride in your Fatherland. All men will obtain preliminary training come prepare them for the al honor of join to Spain"s national forces.

24 . Culture will be arranged in such uno way that cuales talent will certainly be shed for absence of finance. Every those who are deserving will have actually easy accessibility even to higher education.

25. Our motion integrates ns Catholic spirit, which has been traditionally glorious y predominant in Spain, into ns reconstruction of los nation. Church y State will concerned an agreement on ns areas that their particular powers, but any kind of interference representar the Church or any activity likely come undermine los dignity of the state or los integrity of the nation will not it is in tolerated.

(2) edward Knoblaugh, Correspondent in Spain (1937)

Jose Antonio Primo ese Rivera, son of los former dictator y organizer of los Spanish conference Syndicalist Party, was among those enforcement in the visión de conjunto "liquidation" that Rightist leader at los outset of the war. Independence of thought y action had defined Primo"s brilliant politics career. He decreased to ally himself with ns Gil Robles coalition in the mil novecientos treinta y seis elections although he knew that his refusal essentially assured defeat for the national Syndicalists. Primas bitterly resented ns fact the this party frequently was described as "fascist." The national Syndicalists supported los Catholic Church however apart representar the spiritual issue their policies were almost identical with those of the C.N.T.

The 33-year-old politics leader, return of slight physics build, had gained un reputation as a fighter during his one term together deputy to los Cortes. As soon as heckled during his impassioned pleas for social reform or when some slurring remark on ns memory the his dead father was passed by un critic of los Rivera administration, young primo had regularly scrambled over the benches of los chamber and engaged in hand-to-hand affairs with fellow deputies. Soon delaware the February elections primo was imprisoned because that his corrosive criticism of the nuevo regime. In windy speeches and editorials in his weekly newspaper primas declared that los "failure of the government come prevent damage of Rightist residential property or to punish those responsible for the destruction demonstrated ns impotency the the new Popular

Front government to govern."

Inasmuch as countless of his attacks had been leveled straight at los Anarchists, he to be one of the first come be marked for death by los CNT-FAI, following ns outbreak of the war.

The government, realizing that primo enjoyed considerable popularity in plenty of quarters abroad, made an effort to save his life. Largo hidalgo took a privado interest in los case since word had actually been sent out him the his joven son, who name identificación never secured, was being held as ns hostage by los Rebels y that Primo"s death would mean los boy"s death. Primo was spirited incognito come Alicante delaware the government had brought about reports to it is in circulated that he had died in prison, but the ruse failed. Los Anarchists traced primas to his secret dungeon cell in ns Alicante prison and threatened to storm the prison uneven he was ceded to them. They ultimately agreed to ns pleas that the rama of Alicante that primo be given trial. He to be tried. Ns trial was such ns farce the correspondents were not permitted to attend los sessions or to cable anything of the proceedings delaware the first day.

Ver más: Carta De Ana Julia Quezada, La Al Padre De Gabriel Cruz

Primo was executed November 20, 1936, by a militia firing squad. Los government go everything possible to prevent news of ns execution representar reaching abroad yet it leaked el fin through Gibraltar numerous days later y we were permitted to confirm it. Largo got in mourning. We supposed he had heard his boy had actually been shot.